OSCE Reference Guide to Criminal Procedure (2007) (excerpts)

OSCE Reference Guide to Criminal Procedure, annex to the Report to the Belgian OSCE Chairmanship on the elaboration of a Reference Guide to Criminal Procedure (2007) (excerpts)

4.2.4 In principle court proceedings are open to the public, unless the Court decides,
based on the law, that the public should be totally or partly excluded from the public trial
proceedings. This exceptional decision of the court may be rendered, (following
submissions by the parties) only in the interest of: public or national security , public
morality, the rights of the child(ren) involved, victims or witnesses (or their family or
persons close to them) or if the publicity would seriously prejudice their interest. The
decision to exclude the public (totally or partly), is to be announced by the Court in
public session. In no circumstances may parties can be excluded from any Court
proceedings, including rulings on administrative matters. The law will indicate if other
persons, other than the parties involved, can be allowed to assist the proceedings even
though the public is excluded. (e.g. medical staff, monitoring authorities ...)