Constitution (1999, amended 2010) (excerpts)

Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (1999, amended 2010) (excerpts)

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Art. 163 Form of Federal Assembly enactments
1 The Federal Assembly shall enact provisions that establish binding legal rules in the form of federal acts or ordinances.
2 Other enactments shall be promulgated in the form of a federal decree; a federal decree that is not subject to a referendum shall be known as a “simple federal decree”.

Art. 164 Legislation
1 All significant provisions that establish binding legal rule must be enacted in the form of a federal act. These include in particular fundamental provisions on:
a. the exercise of political rights;
b. the restriction of constitutional rights;
c. the rights and obligations of persons;
d. those liable to pay tax as well as the subject matter and assessment of taxes and duties;
e. the duties and services of the Confederation;
f. the obligations of the Cantons in relation to the implementation and enforcement of federal law;
g. the organisation and procedure of the federal authorities.
2 Legislative powers may be delegated by federal act unless this is prohibited by the Federal Constitution.

Art. 165 Emergency legislation
1 Federal acts whose coming into force cannot be delayed (emergency federal acts) may be declared urgent by an absolute majority of the members of each of the two Councils and be brought into force immediately. Such acts must be of limited duration.
2 If a referendum is requested on an emergency federal act, the act must be repealed one year after being passed by the Federal Assembly if it has not in the meantime been approved by the People.
3 An emergency federal act that does not have the Constitution as its basis must be repealed one year after being passed by the Federal Assembly if it has not in the meantime been approved by the People and the Cantons. Any such act must be of limited duration.
4 An emergency federal act that is not approved in a popular vote may not be renewed.

Art. 166  Foreign relations and international treaties
1 The Federal Assembly shall …
2. approve international treaties, with the exception of those that are concluded by the Federal Council under a statutory provision or an international treaty.

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Art. 170 Evaluation of effectiveness
The Federal Assembly shall ensure that federal measures are evaluated with regard
to their effectiveness.

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Art. 182 Lawmaking and implementation of legislation
1 The Federal Council shall enact legislative provisions in the form of ordinances,
provided it has the authority to do so under the Constitution or the law.
2 It shall ensure the implementation of legislation, the resolutions of the Federal Assembly and the judgments of federal judicial authorities.

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