Ljubljana (2005) (excerpts)

Ljubljana 2005 (Decisions: Decision No. 16/05 on Ensuring the Highest Standards of Conduct
and Accountability of Persons Serving on International Forces and Missions)

The Ministerial Council,

(…)

Reiterating that trafficking in human beings, a contemporary form of slavery, seriously undermines
the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Concerned that military and civilian personnel serving on international peacekeeping forces
or other international missions, including contractors, as well as field presences of international
organizations including the OSCE could be a contributing factor to the demand side of
the trafficking cycle,

Welcoming the efforts of the United Nations as well as other international organizations to
develop and enforce “zero-tolerance” policies to prevent trafficking in human beings by both
forces and other staff, which, combined with education and training, are required,

(…)

Concerned about reports of misconduct by military and civilian personnel serving on international
peace-keeping forces or other international missions, including reports of engaging
in trafficking in human beings as defined in the United Nations Protocol to Prevent,
Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, strongly condemning
such acts, and noting that they have a detrimental effect on the fulfilment of mission
mandates,

Concerned also about reports of misconduct by military and civilian personnel serving on international
peacekeeping forces or other international missions including reports of sexually
exploiting and abusing local and refugee populations, as well as reports of cases of forced
labour, strongly condemning such acts, and noting that they have a detrimental effect on the
fulfilment of mission mandates,

Emphasizing the need for more information and awareness-raising concerning these issues
among personnel serving on international missions,
Taking note of efforts by the United Nations aimed at ensuring that personnel serving on
peacekeeping forces or other international missions are held to the highest standard of conduct
and accountability,

1. Calls on participating States to improve, where necessary, measures to prevent military and
civilian personnel deployed abroad to peacekeeping forces or other international missions,
as well as OSCE officials, from engaging in trafficking in human beings or exploiting victims
of trafficking. In this regard, the participating States will seek to ensure that their national
laws, regulations, and other relevant documents can be enforced with respect to their nationals
who are serving on peacekeeping forces or other international missions, with a view to ensuring
the highest standards of conduct and accountability;

2. Calls on participating States with deployed military and civilian personnel to assist, within
their competence and respective mandates, responsible authorities in the host country in their
efforts to combat trafficking in human beings. Each participating State will take into account
policies and consequences regarding trafficking in human beings when instructing its military
and civilian personnel to be deployed abroad;

3. Calls on participating States to take appropriate action necessary to prevent sexual exploitation
and abuse, as well as cases of forced labour, by military and civilian personnel deployed
by them who are serving on peacekeeping forces or other international missions, to enforce
relevant standards of conduct in this regard, and to ensure that any such cases are properly investigated
and appropriately punished;

4. Reaffirms the importance of implementing the Code of Conduct for OSCE Officials
and Staff Instruction No. 11 addressing trafficking in human beings, and instructs the
Secretary General, drawing on the expertise of the OSCE Special Representative on
Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and the Anti-Trafficking Assistance Unit, to update
these documents to make them in line with this decision, and to circulate them to the participating
States for comments and discussion prior to issuance;

5. Invites the governments of the OSCE Partners for Co‑operation also to commit to the
same principles as are set forth in this decision and to that end tasks the OSCE Special
Representative on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and the OSCE Secretary General
to share relevant information and materials with the OSCE Partners for Co‑operation;

6. Tasks the OSCE Special Representative on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings to
share with relevant international organizations OSCE training materials and other information
that could assist in combating trafficking in human beings;

7. Tasks the OSCE Secretary General to report annually to the Permanent Council on the implementation
of this decision in regard to the Code of Conduct for OSCE Officials and Staff
Instruction No. 11, in accordance with provision III 11.1 of the OSCE Action Plan to Combat
Trafficking in Human Beings.