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Penal Code of Estonia (excerpts)

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§ 232. Treason

A citizen of the Republic of Estonia who assists a foreign state, an organisation of a foreign state, an alien or a person acting at the request of a foreign state in non-violent activities directed against the independence and sovereignty of the Republic of Estonia, or collects information classified as a state secret or classified information of a foreign state or an international organisation communicated to Estonia on the basis of an international agreement with the intention of communication thereof, or communicates such information to a foreign state, organisation of a foreign state, alien or a person acting at the request of a foreign state shall be punished by 3 to 15 years’ imprisonment.

(28.06.2004 entered into force 01.07.2004 - RT I 2004, 54, 387)

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§ 234. Espionage

An alien who collects information classified as a state secret or classified information of a foreign state or an international organisation communicated to Estonia on the basis of an international agreement with the intention of communication thereof, or communicates such information to a foreign state, organisation of a foreign state, alien, or a person acting at the request of a foreign state shall be punished by 3 to 15 years’ imprisonment.

(28.06.2004 entered into force 01.07.2004 - RT I 2004, 54, 387)

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§ 241. Disclosure of state secrets

(1) Disclosure or illegal communication of or provision of illegal access to information classified as a state secret or classified information of a foreign state or an international organisation communicated to Estonia on the basis of an international agreement, if such act does not comprise the necessary elements of an offence provided for in § 234 of this Code, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to 5 years’ imprisonment.

(28.06.2004 entered into force 01.07.2004 - RT I 2004, 54, 387)

(2) The same act, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.


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§ 243. Communication of internal information

Collection of information classified as internal information with the intention of communication thereof, or communication of such information to a foreign state, organisation of a foreign state, alien, or a person acting at the request of a foreign state, is punishable by up to 3 years’ imprisonment.

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§ 318. Refusal by witness, victim, translator or interpreter to perform duties
Unjustified refusal by a victim or witness to give testimony in a criminal or misdemeanour
proceeding, or civil or administrative court proceeding, or unjustified refusal by a translator or
interpreter to perform his or her duties is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to one year of
imprisonment.