Republic of Albania

Council of Ministers





To the implementation of order No 77, dated 15.06.2001 of the Prime Minister, a working group was established for drafting the National Strategy to combat the illegal trafficking in human beings.

This group consisted of representatives of the Ministry of \public Order, representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, from the Ministry of Justice General Prosecutor’s Office, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports, Ministry of Education and Science and National Intelligence Service.

International organisations, NGOs and interested specialists to combat trafficking in Human being were also invited in drafting this strategy, such as OSCE, EC Mission in Albania, ICITAP Mission as well as American specialists to the assistance of the Ministry of Public Order structures, Interforce Mission, UNHCR, IOM, ICMC, “Save the Children”, “Terre des Homes”, “Vatra e Gruas Vlonjate”, etc. 

The drafting of the strategy was carried out in several phases, based on the approved structure in the second meeting of the working group, as well as using the available opinions, materials and literature. 

We thank the entire working group, the international organisations and the NGOs for the assistance given for the drafting of this strategy. 


A vision on the condition and long term development directions

Chapter I



Just as with the rest of the region so with Albania, the problems of free movement of human beings began to emerge after 1990, period which coincided with the change in political system.

Large-scale emigration to the west was initially justified by the need to open up the country and the desire to live a better life. Until the beginning of 1992, this eventuated mass flows of Albanian migrants to the west: especially to Greece and Italy as Albania's two closest western European neighbors.

After 1992, the principal receiving countries - especially in the west - enjoined all further massive migration. Various criminal elements then started to meet its demands illegally, laying the foundations for organized trafficking and establishing contacts with criminal networks in neighboring countries - principally in Italy.

Such contacts with criminal networks in neighboring countries enabled Albanians with criminal records or personalities to develop a regular business in illegal trafficking. This trade first took the form of transporting people who wanted to emigrate. It subsequently took on trafficking in women for the purposes of sexual exploitation and prostitution as well as trafficking in children with the intent of criminal abuse.

The geographic location of Albania as the gateway to the west from Eastern Europe made her a ready passageway for such foreign nationals as Kurds, Rumanians, Moldavians and Chinese. Over the years, Albania has, therefore, increasingly become a transit country to the west.

Between 1992 - 1995, Albania did not have any legislation dealing with trafficking in human beings. A new Criminal Code was promulgated in 1995. However, it did not make trafficking in human beings a separate criminal offense. That act was indeed only recognized as such with the passage of new legislation in January 2001. Law No. 8733, dated 24.1.2001 "For some additions and changes to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania" identifies trafficking in human beings, trafficking in women for sexual exploitation and prostitution, and trafficking in children for profit or criminal malfeasance as three distinct crimes.  In terms of sanctions, this law classifies them as serious offences, even in the absence of any serious bodily harm. The law further provides that their perpetrators will be punished with between five and twenty years in prison and with life imprisonment should they cause the death of a trafficked person.

The lack of legislation, the organization of individuals with criminal tendencies with the intention of making profits through this way and the lack of governmental supervision during those years fostered the growing of the trafficking to huge dimensions.

Albania is currently considered to be a country with a very high incidence of trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation and commercial gain. Various reports and analyses have not simply portrayed her as a country where traffickers and mob syndicates recruit human beings to supply illegal markets in the west. They have likewise depicted Albania as a transit country for persons from Eastern Europe. Trafficking must be seen as an international phenomenon, where very often the foreigners support and finance those trafficking activities.

Trafficking of women for the purpose of sexual exploitation through prostitution is a disturbing problem. This is particularly the case for its most recent victims. There is no counter strategy to help any of them who want to quit this type of life and return to a normal form of existence.

The period between 1996-1998 saw an increase in the number of women trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation through prostitution. The collapse of the pyramid schemes, the looting of the weapons storage depots, together with the anarchy that ruled for some time thereafter, enabled trafficking to expand into many districts throughout the country. However, this created its own series of problems such as:

§ brutal competition among traffickers; annihilation of rival groups,

§ revenge killings by armed citizens to protect women against trafficking,

§ when the recruitment of Albanian women became more dangerous and difficult, traffickers began trafficking mainly foreign women from Eastern European countries, where recruitment was made easier by exploiting their wishes to go to the west.

Trafficking in human beings, especially trafficking in women for the purpose of sexual exploitation through prostitution, proved an extremely lucrative business. Individuals with a criminal leaning turn their hand to it, engaging in organized crime and all manner of other dealings connected with servicing that trade.

According to data collected and surveys done by state bodies as well as by a number of NGOs active in combating female trafficking, Albania is not only a country of origin. It also serves as a transit country for women trafficked from Russia, Moldova, Rumania, Bulgaria, etc. The complex and clandestine nature of such trafficking, however, makes it difficult to gather precise information. This makes it impossible to have a true measure of the problem and arrive at an exact calculation of the number of women subject to trafficking for exercising prostitution.

Trafficking in children with the intent of their criminal use, forcing them to perform illegal activities as beggary, stealing, as well as using them for the purpose of organ trafficking, is another highly disturbing aspect of trafficking in human beings.  According to the ISS and the national strategy for children, there are 4000 unaccompanied migrant minors who could easily become victims of similar criminal activities and sexual abuse.

Such trafficking in women and children is likely to be coupled with drug trafficking and arms smuggling. The so-called “Protectors” are prepared to safeguard their illegal profits by whatever means are needed to maintain control over those victims as part of the network of their criminal activities. The measures used go far beyond the conceivable limits of any ordinary crimes.

While the Albanian Government has made combating trafficking in human beings a priority, it realizes that ad hoc measures cannot put an end to that phenomenon. It has, therefore, drafted the following mid-term strategy in the hope that, within the next 4 years, all trafficking activities will be eradicated and their victims re-integrated into society.

The Albanian Government intends to stop trafficking in human beings through the imposition of severe sentences on traffickers and the masterminds behind their operations; the creation of occupation and job opportunities for victims; medical and psychological treatment; the development of educational programs and public awareness campaigns; and, the use of opportunities provided by European integration including close cooperation with neighboring countries and interested international organizations and NGOs: in short,  through the implementation of the measures outlined in the National Action Plan annexed to this strategy.

The Albanian government is convinced that it will be successful in these endeavors because of its political resolve to combat all forms of trafficking, and especially human trafficking, as a matter of the highest priority. It will take whatever measures may be needed, committing all manners of human and material resources, in order to secure an efficient and fast solution.





The mission of the strategy is the establishment of main directions of efforts for the achievement of prevention and stoppage of traffic of human beings, to protect and help the victims of the traffic and make possible their reintegration in society.

The national strategy to combat trafficking of human beings constitutes an indispensable document for the coordination of actions and commitment of state and international institutions as well as of non-governmental organizations having an interest on the prevention of this traffic.

It will express the measures that the Albanian Government will undertake for the accomplishment of this mission within a time limit of 3 years and will establish concrete duties in the action plan for every institution.

Constituting a priority for the government, its accomplishment will involve the necessary legal, administrative and financial support and will employ a strong control in the fulfillment of duties.

The fight against the trafficking of human beings will constitute a full cooperation of the actions of institutions and a total commitment of all human and financial resources that will be reflected in a continuous progress towards its full prevention.

In the context of this strategy, a concept of what is meant by “traffic of human beings” is needed, and it is defined as “the recruitment, transport, transfer, hiding or hosting of persons by means of threatening, use of force and other forms of compulsion, deceit, abduct, cunning, or abuse of power or of a weak position, or giving or receiving of advantages in order to gain the accord of a person that controls another person for purposes of exploitation. The exploitation includes the exploitation for prostituting or other forms of sexual exploitation, work or other forced services, slavery or practices similar to it, removal of organs or servitude”[1].

According to the Albanian legislation, “Trafficking of human beings, trafficking of females for prostitution, trafficking of children with the purpose of material profit or any other profit is punished by 5 to 20 years of imprisonment or by life imprisonment”[2].

The fight against trafficking constitutes an immediate necessity because of the consequences related to the traffic of human beings, the life and health of the victims, the growth and strengthening of local criminal groups and organizations as well as foreign ones, especially those in neighboring countries, the social and psychological impact, the growth of criminality in general and particularly of the murders, rapes, drugs, etc., and consequences on family life and cohabitation.

In these circumstances, the leading role of this fight will be undertaken by the highest state institutions through reporting, analyzing and determining of the measures for its progress. Thus, there will be created a “Committee for the fight against trafficking of human beings” attached to the Prime Minister, composed of members of the government, directors of State  Services and specialists, members of international institutions that operate in Albania and which will follow the progress of work in this field, will get familiar with the concrete situation and will propose measures to the Prime Minister for improving and rendering this process efficient

The core part of the fight against the trafficking will consist in taken measures for completing the legislative framework according to international standards, to identify the organizers of trafficking and their co-conspirators, to strengthen of the frontier, to assist the victims of trafficking and their medical and psychological treatment.  Measures will be taken to create and maintain conditions for their employment in Albania or abroad, for raising public awareness and education particularly of minors and young persons, for decreasing the level of poverty, etc.

The major burden of the fight against trafficking will be obviously supported by the specialized state bodies and justice structures, but also other institutions will be involved in this fight and thus notably contributing in the decreasing of the trafficking and raising the public awareness, eliminating the factors and reasons that contribute in the development of trafficking, coordination of activities and collaboration with international organizations and NGOs.

This strategy aims at encouraging and coordinating the activity of all structures that can contribute in the fight against trafficking and can be institutionally committed in this activity. Their commitment will be done from now on through the fulfillment of the clear objectives and accomplishment of duties provided by the action plan.    

Situation analysis

§ Trafficking analysis

§ Regional analysis

§ Swot analysis

§ Analysis of Albanian legislation on trafficking



In order to simplify the analysis of the complex and complicated phenomenon, for reasons related to this strategy, a separate analysis will be done for the trafficking in human beings for (a) employment and residency emigration, for (b) the trafficking of females for exploitation for prostitution and for (c) the trafficking of children for abuse and profit .

a) Trafficking in human beings for employment and residency emigration

During 1990 – 1992, a large number of Albanians left the country towards the west hoping to find a better life, employment and temporary residence there.  Thus, there were about 4 000 Albanians that entered the foreign embassies and left Albania.  There were exoduses towards Greece, Italy and other countries.  Further numbers left by ship in March 1991, stimulated by the collapse of the political system and the opening of the country towards the rest of the world.  This massive process of fleeing Albania until the end of 1992 cannot be classified as traffic of human beings. According to calculations made, approximately 300 000 persons left Albania during that period of time.

After 1992, such mass emigration stopped.   One of the reasons for this was the strengthening of measures by receiving countries to restrict entry and take steps for repatriation. Finding themselves restricted in legal means of migration, attempts were made to do so by land sea and air.  It was then that the criminal activity of trafficking in human beings began to emerge as a serious problem. Ciminal and corrupt elements began to establish trafficking routes, providing them with great profits.   

There are currently approximately 500 000 Albanians that left the country and spread all over the world.  Of these 100 000 left Albania in a legal way, with regular passports and visas.  It may be said that approximately 100 000 others have been trafficked during 1993 – 2001.

The most important trafficking forms in this category of people have been:

- by sea, without regular documents and using navigational conveyances;

- by land, crossing the border illegally avoiding the border control;

- through crossing the border control using false documents.

These forms have been used in all categories of trafficked persons, for both Albanian and foreign citizens, for females that were exploited for prostitution as well as for minors.

1. Crossing the sea by navigational conveyances, without documents

Initially, Albanian navigational conveyances such as fishing boats, ships and other speedboats were used for trafficking. Realizing that the profits were great, making and having made good contacts with their Italian counterparts, Albanian traffickers bought high-speed navigational conveyances such as high-power speedboats, thus making possible high-speed sea-crossing and also  thereby reducing the chances of being caught by Italian patrol boats.

Between 1993-1998, hundreds of high-speed navigational conveyances used Vlora >Bay, the Vjosa estuary, the Shkumbin estuary, the bays of Kavaja and Durrës as well as the >port of Shëngjin for the purpose of illegal trafficking.

This trafficking was organized mainly by gathering the people in staging centers initially by a payment of 30,000 thousand lekë for the crossing. This fee was later increased gradually until it reached the sum of 120,000 lekë. This very method was employed for trafficking such foreign citizens as the Chinese, Kurds with Turkish or Iranian nationalities, as well as those from other countries.

It should be emphasized that this type of trafficking did not require the use of any travel documents. The number of tragic cases, in which people drowned while being trafficked in this way, kept on rising and was capped with the drowning of 84 persons in the Straits of Otranto on 28th March 1997.

Given these circumstances, the traffickers also started to use the Border Crossing Point at Kakavia. They provided trafficking victims with false papers such as passports, laissez-passer, visas and foreign resident permits. Cases of abuse by officers charged with checking such documents at border crossing are reported to have occurred. These state officials had been bribed.

Between 1993-1998, police operations directed at capturing traffickers and preventing trafficking were reported to have been negligible and lacking accountability. It must be stated, however, that during 1997 all manner of police activity was paralyzed by virtue of the looting of weapons depots and the prevailing anarchy in the country.

A moderate increase in police activity was noted in 1998. The police began to take action against some trafficking gangs and made a certain amount of minimal progress.

Police work improved especially in the period between 1999-2000. Many traffickers were identified and arrested, and numerous navigational conveyances seized. The Law “On Governing the Registration, Use and Regulation of motor-powered navigational conveyances under 20 tones net weight” was promulgated in September 2000. This Law helped the police to identify and seize the navigational conveyances used for trafficking in human beings.

In 2000-2001 the police registered far better results with a notable decrease in trafficking.  (Table No. 1)

In 2000-2001 alone, 662 navigational conveyances carrying 18,209 victims of trafficking wereprevented from achieving their objectives. 112 navigational conveyances were seized and 6,000 persons accompanied to police commissariats for questioning.  (Table No. 2)

2. Crossing the borders avoiding the BCCP (Border Crossing Check Point)

This form of trafficking started initially as guiding and getting small compensation for this activity and then was organized in traffickers’ network.

The crossing of Albanians to Greece, using this form, was accompanied with painful events, but it reduced as other possibilities grew.

It is this route that most victims of foreign trafficking transitting through Albania as a transit are brought into the country.

Mountain paths and difficult terrains have been used for this purpose, or crossing through lakes taking advantage of darkness and lack of patrols. 

3. Crossing through the BCCP (Border Crossing Check Point) using false documents

The crossing through BCCP (Border Crossing Check Point) is the most organized way of traffickers because there exists collaboration between the traffickers and falsifiers with the clerks that abuse their duty.

This way, used for the Albanian citizens as well foreign ones who aim at going to the West, has been observed in almost all the crossing border points especially at Rinas Airport and the harbors of Durrës and Vlora.  During the years 1993-1998, these routes have been used a great deal and there have been few police checks on these routes.

After 1998, there have been identified hundreds of cases of the returned Albanian citizens with irregular documents from those crossing points as well as returned foreign citizens who did not fulfill the criteria to enter Albania (Table No 3).

These methods are being being used more often for trafficking of foreign women for prostitution.

b) Trafficking of women for prostitution exploitation

It is one of the most severe ways of trafficking and the same routes are used as forthose who are illegally transported for purposes of economic migration.. 

This criminal activity had its beginnings after 1992, a time when Albanian criminal elements were making contact with their foreign counterparts.  This form of crime was seen as a great source of income. 

The period between 1992-1998 was the most intense period of the trafficking of women for prostitution, because the measures taken during this period for its preventing were minimal, The jusificaion for this was that the women were leaving of their own free will.  In this period, some zones became centers of women traffickers such as Berat, Fier, Shijak of Durres, the zone of Laç, Vlora and some other centers (Table No 4).

There is information that around 8 thousand Albanian women are being forced to exercise prostitution in different European countries such as Italy, Greece, England, France and Belgium. This number does not include those who are involved in prostitution willingly.  It is thought that the same number of foreign women has been trafficked and they have been handed over to Albanian traffickers by international criminal networks taking advantage of using Albania as a transit country. 

The traffickers have used the following forms for forcing females in exercising prostitution:

- Deceit for marriage and living abroad;

- Deceit for having found job and living conditions abroad;

- Deceit by using female intermediaries and by payment;

- Abductions, rapes and threats to her life and to her family;

- Their sale by members of the family;

- Compromising by using gifts, money and by creating other financial obligations.

In using these forms of constraint, the traffickers have profited by such social economic conditions as:  poverty, lack of employment, inactive and isolated life, desire to go abroad and find a job there, desire to marry and live abroad, abductions, and the effect of a local opinion on girls who make “mistakes” in their lives. The traffickers have used these forms carefully; the most used being deceit.

During 1998 – 2001 approximately 870 females have been repatriated by foreign states; 437 out of this number have been interviewed during 2000 – 2001 and 10% of them have explained that they prostitute of their own free will as it constitutes their way of making a living. Another 50% did not want to talk about the matter and the rest, approximately 40%, explained how they had been exploited and forced to prostitute.  On the other hand, many females found it possible to escape from the exploitation of their “protectors” by surrendering themselves to the police bodies of the respective countries and denouncing their activities, or have returned in Albania where they reintegrated in the normal life.

Cases when trafficked females have given explanations are tragic and show an extreme brutality and cruelty on the part of protectors and traffickers, as well as numerous tortures and threats that have even led to loss of lives.

The trafficking of Albanian females has become more and more difficult for the traffickers. For this reason they are involving foreign females in this trafficking, having connections in this respect with criminal networks in Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Serbia and Montenegro and establishing contacts with traffickers’ networks in Italy, Greece, England, Belgium and Switzerland for the sale and  purchasing of the women and girls.

41 females have been rescued from trafficking during the first 8 months of 2001, 19 out of whom were foreigners and other 11 were minors.  85 persons have been arrested for being involved in the trafficking of females and exploitation for prostitution, and 14 of them were criminal groups (Table no. 5).

The routes of trafficking of foreign citizens for prostitution exploitation as well as for trafficking of foreign emigrants.

A distinction is made between countries of origin, transit countries and countries of destination in determining the routes of trafficking.

The countries of origin for the trafficking of females for prostitution exploitation (Tables no. 6, 7 and 8) are:

- Russia, Ukraine, Moldavia

- Romania

- Bulgaria

Transit countries are:

- Romania

- Macedonia

- Serbia

- Kosova

- Montenegro

- Albania

Countries of destination are:

- Italy

- France

- Belgium

- The Netherlands

- England

Although Albania enters the category of transit countries, the reality has shown that the Albanian traffickers try to exploit as prostitutes the victims of this trafficking within the territory of the country for profit and then proceed with selling them in countries of destination. 

The trafficking of females for prostitution remains as one of the most difficult problems to be resolved and it requires taking urgently the measures provided for in this strategy.

c) Trafficking of children for abuse or profiting purposes

During 1992-2000, it has been estimated that 4 000 children under 18 years old have been trafficked from Albania, mainly to the neighboring countries for exploitation or sexual abuses, for begging as well as working in slavery. 

The trafficking of children, especially young girls, is seen as a great source of income for traffickers who exploit every possibility to make it happen. 

Sources of recruiting children for trafficking are:

- Divorced families and lack of family care

- Families with many children in difficult economic situation

- Village families hoping for help from their children

- Orphan children without care

- Families whose parents have left for employment abroad

- Children who have abandoned school and have dealt with begging and other illegal activities also in Albania.

The living conditions of the trafficked minors, in most of the cases, are miserable: hard work, long hours and minimal payment only to survive. 

The traffickers prefer those children because they cost less and the income from their work is always increasing.

Cases of trafficked children during 2001 have been observed in Memaliaj, Durres, Puke, Korçe etc and the perpetrators of this trafficking have been handed over for criminal prosecution under arrest. 

The routes of children’s trafficking are usually the same as those of human beings’ trafficking but the traffickers use also false supporting documents as their baby sitters or parents. 

The work with children for their integration, return to Albania and care is difficult.  This requires commitment of both the state institutions and international NGOs that have programs related to this issue. 


The crime of trafficking in human beings is not only an Albanian problem. It is an international problem and concern worldwide.  In our region, there exist countries that are simultaneously countries of origin and transition.  The traffickers use both as a source of great income. 

It is known that there exist international criminal organizations involved in the trafficking of human beings.  The connections  between the traffickers are solid as long as the criminal activity continues.  Therefore, the traffickers in the countries of origin take care of human beings recruiting and collection in specific meeting points where traffickers of other countries come, pick up and transport them through safe routes.  Thus, there exist recruitment points in Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and Serbia as well as transit points in Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, Montenegro and Albania (Table No 9).

The income of this trafficking is divided amongst traffickers of different countries who carry out their collaboration without recognizing state borders and taking advantage of the lack of regional police collaboration in combating them.

The trafficking of emigrants follows two routes:

§ firstly, Turkey, Greece or Macedonia to Albania and

§ secondly, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Albania.

All those routes continue on into Western Europe.

SWOT Analysis

1. Strong points:

- There exists the political will and the government program to combat trafficking in human beings.

- There is already a national strategy to combat trafficking in human beings.

- We have the assistance of international organizations and foreign specialists.

- We have established specialized bodies to combat this trafficking.

- We have collaboration with other states through coordinators as well as through the international center in Vlora.

- We continue working on our obligations set in the framework of the Stability Pact.

- We have created our own positive and negative experiences to draw on to combat trafficking in human beings.

2. Weak points

- We have deficiencies in protecting and checking the state border.

- Existence of corruption and compromise of state officials.

- Lack of qualified police and prosecutors’ personnel.

- Lack of shelters for rehabilitation of foreign and Albanian victims of trafficking.

- Lack of technical equipment for a qualified combat against traffickers.

- Need for changes in the Criminal Procedure Code and law on witnesses’ protection.

- Lack of public awareness on education programs on the trafficking risks.

3. Opportunities

- Restructuring of border police forces

- Expansion of fight against trafficking structure in regional level

- Closed collaboration both within the country and with other ones

- Assistance of international organizations, foreign specialists

- Qualification of personnel in combating trafficking

- Fulfillment of material and technical needs

- Establishment of shelters and rehabilitation centers

- Organization of public awareness through education programs within schools and outside them

- Consistent and more effective inspection

These would lead to interruption of human beings trafficking, reintegration of victims of trafficking in the society and solution of social problems. 

4. Threats that derive from trafficking

- Increased danger of organized crime

- Increased social problems

- Loss of public trust towards government

- Increased corruption amongst all the state officials

- Increased criminality in general


Albanian legislation provides as a specific crime the “trafficking in human beings” expressed through trafficking of a human beings, trafficking of women for prostitution, trafficking of children as well as criminal offenses related to trafficking in human beings such as intentional hiding or substituting of a child, illegal border crossing, assistance in illegal border crossing, punishments for organizing prostitution and activities related to it. 

The current Albanian Criminal Code provides sanctions for criminal offenses related directly or indirectly to trafficking in human beings. These include the above mentioned criminal offences as well as maintenance, exploitation, financing and renting out of premises for prostitution, kidnapping of a person or child under the age of 14, unlawful deprivation of a person’s liberty endangering the life or causing physical assault, sexual assault, removal of identification papers, falsification of identification papers, threat, commission of criminal offenses in collusion by armed or criminal organizations.

In line with the Albanian Criminal Code, all objects serving or determined to be used for the commission of the criminal offense, including any objects, money, or other property derived from the criminal offense or reward provided or promised for its commission are taken and transferred to the state following conviction for the crime. This also complies with the European Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime, ratified by Law No. 8646, dated 20.7.2000, which provides for the cooperation of all parties of the convention to confiscate the proceeds of criminal acts located in any country that is a member of this convention.

Under Albanian law, citizens of foreign countries can be deported if they have illegally entered Albania.  Witnesses, however, can be exempted from deportation due to the overreaching interests of the State such as the need for them to remain as witnesses through the conclusion of criminal proceedings. 

The victims of trafficking are entitled to be represented by a legal representative or representative equipped with a power of attorney, to have an interpreter paid for by the government, enjoy the right to speak and be informed of the evidence and acts as well as the conduct of the proceedings, with the assistance of a translator.

Currently, there are no laws in Albania governing witness protection. Existing law does not prevent witness protection, although a lack of financial and personnel resources make provision of adequate protection difficult. Under the Albanian Criminal Code, persons arrested or sentenced for a criminal offense related to trafficking in narcotics, prostitution, and clandestine emigration, who cooperate and assist in the criminal proceedings against them, cannot be given a punishment of more than half of the maximum punishment for the offense they committed. Under specific cases, these persons can even be excluded from punishment.

This review includes the changes to the Criminal Code, recently passed by the Parliament by Law No. 8733, dated 24.1.2001, “For some additions and changes to Law No. 7895, dated 27.1.1995, “Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania.”  This law introduces, among other things, specific articles on trafficking in human beings and provides stiffer sanctions for the authors of these criminal offenses.


Criminal offence


Article 110/a

Trafficking of human beings with the purpose of material profit or any other profit

In collusion with others, repeatedly or accompanied with mistreatment and physical or psychological threat of the injured person to commit different actions or causing serious harm to the health of the trafficked person.

Causing death to the trafficked person.

5-15 years imprisonment

Life imprisonment


Article 114/a

Aggravated exploitation, involvement of minors, coercion, compulsion to engage in prostitution outside the jurisdiction, involvement in collusion with others, repeatedly, or of persons holding state or public office


7-15 years of imprisonment


Article 114/b

Trafficking of women for prostitution with the purpose of material profit or any other profit.

In collusion with others or repeatedly or is accompanied with mistreatment and physical or psychological threat to the injured woman to commit different actions or causing serious harm to the health of the trafficked woman.

Causing death to the injured woman

7-15 years of imprisonment

Not less than 15 years imprisonment

Life imprisonment


Article 128/b

Trafficking of children with the purpose of material profit or any other profit


In collusion with others or repeatedly or is accompanied with mistreatment and physical or psychological threat of the injured child to commit different actions or causing serious harm to the health of the trafficked child

Causing death to the injured child

10-20 years of imprisonment

Not less than 15 years imprisonment

Life imprisonment


Article 298

Assisting illegal border crossing by making available or use of a conveyance by sea, air or other means in order to assist illegal border crossing.

Assisting in illegal border crossing for purposes of profit.

Commission of an offense causing death or serious injury to one or more persons.

Fine or up to 3 years imprisonment

Fine or up to 7 years imprisonment

Not less than 7 years imprisonment


Article 25

Meaning of collusion

Collusion is an agreement of two or more persons to commit a criminal act.



Article 27

Responsibility of collaborators, organizers, instigators, helpers, and those directly involved.



Article 28

Armed gangs and criminal organization


Article 333


Creation of armed gangs or criminal organizations

5 to 15 years imprisonment

Article 334


Commission of crimes by armed gangs or criminal organizations


5 years imprisonment is added to the sentence unless it will exceed the maximum term

Article 109

Kidnapping or keeping a person hostage for purposes of gain or profit in order to prepare conditions for the commission of a crime, to help perpetrators or collaborators in hiding or escaping the scene of the crime, to avoid punishment, or to force the granting of requests and certain conditions, for political or other purposes.

Kidnapping or keeping hostage a child under the age of 14.

Kidnapping or keeping hostage a person or child under the age of 14, proceeded by or accompanied by physical or psychological torture, if it is committed against several persons or repeatedly.

Where it causes death.


10-20 years imprisonment

Not less than 15 years imprisonment

Not less than 20 years imprisonment

Life imprisonment


- Objectives of the strategy

- Action Plan



The objectives of the national strategy to combat trafficking in human beings are related to the mission and the purpose of its drafting.  The main objectives are:

- Fulfillment and implementation of the necessary legal framework

- Institutional, structural organizational changes, the establishment of a committee near the Prime Minister to combat trafficking in human beings

- Improvement of the social conditions and a decrease in the level of poverty.

- Increased care for the trafficked victims and their reintegration programs.

- Strengthening of the cooperation amongst state institutions and the regional police forces interested in this issue.

- Increased public awareness.

The deadline for the accomplishment of the objectives is September 2004. 

Action Plan

The Action Plan contains these elements:

- Objectives

- Types of activity

- Responsibility

- Probable partners for implementation –

- Indicators of achievement


Objective: Identifying the reasons for trafficking, its methods, the current experience in the field, the gaps in legislation and the policies that protect women and children.


Types of activity

Responsibility, Deadline

Conduct research on trafficking in human beings, its patterns, and recommendations for work improvement.

Ministry of Public Order (MPO), General Prosecution Office

by June 2002


Collect reports, statistics, research information from conferences, relevant government agencies, IGOs, NGOs dealing with trafficking in human beings

MPO and of National Intelligence Service (NIS)

by June 2002

Drafting the law “On the protection of witnesses”

Ministry of Justice, the General Prosecution Office

by September 2002.

Drafting the law “On some additions and changes of the Criminal Procedure Code”

Ministry of Justice

by September 2002

Drafting the Decision of the Council of Ministers “On the establishment of the Committee to combat trafficking in human beings near the Prime Minister”


by December 30, 2001

Drafting a specific working program for the protection of women and children

Ministry of the Labor and Social Affairs

by June 2002

Indicators of achievement of the accomplishment of these tasks:

- Clear identification of the reasons for trafficking and the preventive measures for the illegal trafficking of human beings. 

- Completion of the legislation for the protection of witnesses and changes to the code of criminal procedure regarding the starting of the proceedings upon the complaint of the family members or the caretaker of the victims of the trafficking.

- Establishment of a focal point for the reports and clear statistics of the trafficking in human beings. 

- Implementation of a strict control on the progress of the work to combat trafficking in human beings.

- Implementation of the program for the protection of women and children that are in risk of trafficking.


Objective:  “Raising public awareness with regard of trafficking in human beings”

Types of activity

Responsibility, Deadline

Drafting a specific program for raising public awareness with regard to combat trafficking in human beings, the danger involved and its consequences

Minister of State near the office of the Prime Minister

by March 2002. 

Assisted by international organizations and NGOs

Organizing TV programs on trafficking in human beings from the point of view of the prevention of trafficking and the victim’s position

Minister of State near the office of the Prime Minister

by June 2002.

Assisted by specialists of anti-trafficking as well as NGO-s

Completing the internet site with both the legislation against trafficking and the work done


by March 2002

Organizing conferences, seminars of wide participation, etc., with the intention of distributing information and reaching collaboration in this direction.


by September 2002

Assisted by OSCE and NGOs

Indicators of Achievement:

- A raising of public awareness on trafficking issues.

- Active and sensitive coverage of these issues by the media.

- Distribution of information, posters, booklets, etc.


Objective: To ensure the education of women and children regarding their protection against trafficking and exploitation.

Types of activity

Responsibility, Deadline

Distribution of information regarding possibilities for legal migration.

Ministry of Public Affairs,

Ministry of Work and Social Affairs

by March 2002.

Assisted by IOM and other organizations

Preparation of educational materials for children and youth “On the danger of trafficking and for promoting the intolerance toward the violence against women and girls.”

Ministry of Education and Science

by September 2002

Compilation of a training program for the teachers with regard to these issues

Ministry of Education and Science

by September 2002

Development of programs containing suitable information for the young people and children on sexual relations and prevention of STD and HIV/AIDS in schools or other activities in the community.

Ministry of Education and science and Ministry of Health

by September 2002.

Assisted by international organizations and NGOs

Indicators of Achievements:

- Awareness raising regarding for legal migration opportunities avoiding traffickers.

- Awareness raising regarding non-discriminatory issues.

- An improved knowledge on sexual relations and the risks for the young people.

- The prevention of spreading STDs and HIV/AIDS.



Objective: “The improvement of the social and economical conditions of women”

Types of activity

Responsibility, Deadline

Compilation of the program “The position of women in the society and the respective recommendations”

Committee for Equal Opportunities

by December 2002.

Assisted by NGOs.

Compilation of the program “The commitment in economy of young girls and their job settlement.”

Ministry of Work and Social Affairs

by December 2002

Development of economic programs for the economic strengthening of women through their  professional capability.

Ministry of Work and Social Affairs

by September 2003

Development of economic programs for the prevention of domestic violence and its economic and social consequences for women and children.

Ministry of Works and Social Affairs

by June 2004.

Assisted by NGOs.

Indicators of Achievements:

- Compilation of non discriminatory statistics regarding the employment of women, reports on the type and value of the work of women.

- Evaluation of the economical possibilities created in the transition toward a market economy paying attention to women that have key roles in the economy.

- Opening job opportunities for women including training for new skills, alternative employments or development of other opportunities.


Objective: “To ensure services for the protection of the victims of trafficking”

Types of activity

Responsibility, Deadline

Establishment of accommodation, physical and psychological treatment centers for the victims of trafficking.

MPO, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Health

by December 2002.

To sign agreements of acceptance with the countries of origin of the victims of  trafficking

MPO, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

by March 2003.



Indicators of Achievements:

- The development of the infrastructure and the sources necessary to provide shelter to the victims of trafficking.

- Establishment of the possibilities for legal, physical and physiological services.

- Achievement of the return to the countries of origin of the victims of trafficking.


Objective: “To enable women and children to heal and reintegrate”

Types of activity

Responsibility, Deadline

Signing agreements of cooperation between the centers of accommodation and NGOs’ networks involved to combat trafficking.

MPO, Ministry of Works and Social Affairs by December 2002.

Preparation of educational programs for the families and the community in order not to alleviate the victims of trafficking

Ministry of Education and Science

by September 2002

Assisted by NGO-s and international organizations.

Indicators of Achievements:

- Exchange of information between NGOs and Police

- Awareness raising of family members and the community regarding the possibility of reintegration of the victims in the society.


Objective: “Training of the personnel committed to combat trafficking.”

Types of activity

Responsibility, Deadline

Organization of trainings for the officials committed to combat trafficking in human beings (police, prosecutors, court) to investigate and prosecute the organizers of trafficking and also to respect the victims and the highest interest of the children.


Ministry of Justice

General Prosecutor’s Office

by March 2003.

Development of training programs for the improvement of the cooperation among police, NGOs and international organizations. 


by March 2003

Training the border checking police staff of the Border Crossing Check Points (BCCPs) to identify the traffickers and the victims as well as to take the necessary measures.



by March 2003

Indicators of Achievements:

- Professional qualification of the police staff and other officials to combat trafficking in human beings.


Objective: “Strengthening of the efforts for preventing trafficking in human beings”

Types of activity

Responsibility, Deadline

Development of professional educational programs for increasing the commitment of police members to combat trafficking


by June 2002

Establishment of special police units for the prevention and prosecution of the traffickers, by aiming at the extension to the Directorates of Regional Police


by the end of December 2001

Equipping these units with special technical means for performing specific duties for identifying and capturing the traffickers

MPO and Ministry of Finances

by September 2002

Terminating the reorganization of the Border Police and blocking of the trespassing of the traffickers and victims of trafficking


by March 2002.

Increasing the level of the internal service control to fight the police personnel involved in trafficking in human beings, through the termination of the selection process of its personnel.


by June 2002.



Indicators of Achievements:

- Successful tracing and investigations and better results to combat traffickers.

- A better organization of the work for the identification of the traffickers’ networks through the special units of the anti-trafficking fight.

- Application of criminal prosecution for the corrupted police officials.

- Prevention of trespassing of the traffickers through state border.

Calculation and Financing Sources

- Necessary funding for the implementation of the national strategy for the fight against trafficking in human beings

- Financing Sources



For the implementation of the national strategy for the fight against trafficking in human beings, and in support of the objectives and measures foreseen for the prevention and fight against trafficking in human beings, expenditures are calculated as follows:

1. For the objective “Improvement of the work for the prevention of trafficking in human beings” the following activities will be carried out, involving the following expenditures:

- Establishment of special police units attached to the Police Directories in the Districts, requesting an amount of about 909 million Lek, detailed as follows:

a) Salaries ………………………………………………………….. 50 million Lek/year

b) Equipment …………………………………………………………. 80 million Lek

c) Operational Expenditures …………………………………………. 10 million Lek

d) Expenditures for the Center in Vlora ……………………………… 85 million Lek

e) Logistical support for border patrolling including one boat ………..200 million Lek

f) Special equipment, helicopters …………………………………….. 200 million Lek

g) Purchase of a Building in Vlora …………………………………… 284 million Lek

Expenditures for the establishment and the functioning of special police unit will be covered by the Albanian Government budget, as well as programs supported by foreign donors.

2. Development of programs for professional training of police officers and staff of the prosecutors office, requesting an amount of 64 million Lek, detailed as follows:

a) Training in Albania (one week) ……………………………………… 24 million Lek

b) Training courses abroad ……………………………………………… 40 million Lek

Expenditures for training in Albania will be covered by the Albanian Government and IOM.

Expenditures for training abroad will be covered by foreign donors, based on agreements made.

3. For the objective “Securing services for the protection of victims of trafficking”

- Establishment of three shelters, for the medical and psychological care of victims of trafficking needs a fund of 720 million Lek, as follows:

a) Shelter for third country nationals stranded in Albania.............. 100 million Lek

b) Shelter for victims of trafficking................. 200 million Lek

c) Funds for returning victims of trafficking in their countries of origin.................... 60 million Lek

d) Shelter for rehabilitation of trafficked minors.........................60 million Lek

e) Purchase of construction sites for these shelters.....................300 million Lek

These expenditures will be covered by foreign donors.

4. The objective “Training of the staff engaged in the fight against trafficking”

- Staff that will be involved in the fight against trafficking in the prosecutors offices, police, judicial sector who will be responsible for fighting the phenomenon and assisting victims of trafficking, especially minors will receive training, which will need a fund of 42 million Lek:

a) Training on investigative methods..................................6 million Lek

b) Training for respecting rights of minors..........................10 million Lek

c) Training for improvement of collaboration between the police and NGOs and international organisations................6 million Lek

d) Training for border police officers in order to improve their potential for identifying traffickers and victims of trafficking.................20 million Lek

These expenditures will be covered by Non Governmental and International Organisations.

5. The objective for “Assisting women and children victims of trafficking in their reintegration process” with a fund of 202 million Lek.

a) Development of the program, situation of women in Albanian society and necessary recommendations........................1 million Lek

b) Development of the program for rehabilitation and reintegration of women in the Albanian society ..............................100 million Lek

c) Development of economic programs for the economic support to women victims of trafficking......................................100 million Lek 

d) Development of programs for the prevention of domestic violence and its economic and social repercussions on women and children...............1 million Lek

Expenditures for implementation of such programs will be covered by NGO-s and other donors.

6. The objective “Education of Women and Children for protecting themselves from trafficking and exploitation” with a total fund of 12 million Lek.

a) Public Information campaign for possibilities of legal migration..................... 1 million Lek.

b) Preparation of school curricula for children and students to inform them about risks of trafficking and promote the zero tolerance approach towards violence on women................ 2 million Lek

c) Programs for training of teachers on these issues..............8 million Lek

d) School curricula and public activities with information on sexual intercourse and risks of STDs, and HIV-AIDS............. 1 million Lek

These expenditures will be covered partly by the state budget and partly by NGO-s.

7. The objective “Raising of public awareness on the trafficking of human beings” needs 4 million Lek:

a) Preparation of a specific program for raising public awareness on issues of trafficking in human beings........................1 million Lek

b)  Television broadcasts on issues of prevention of trafficking in human beings and situation of victims of trafficking...................1 million Lek

c) Conferences and seminars and information sharing on these issues............................ 2 million Lek.

Expenditures for these activities will be covered by the state budget and different donors, as well as international organisations and NGO-s.

8. The Objective “Identification of reasons of trafficking in human beings, of the ways it is carried out, legislation shortcomings, needs the amount of 113 million Lek.

a) Carry out a study case for the ways of trafficking in human beings, and recommendations for the improvement of the situation ……….   1 million Lek

b) Creation of a data base and information from government agencies, international organisations and NGO-s.................1 million Lek

c) Preparation of a witness protection Law...................1 million Lek

d) Implementation of the witness protection Law.................50 million Lek/year

e) Expenditures for Prosecution office (judicial police)................10 million Lek

f) Other expenditures.....................50 million Lek

Expenditures for these activities will be covered by the state budget and other donors.

There are foreseen total expenditures for the amount of 2 billion and 102 million Lek.

a) Expenditures from the Albanian state budget.................... 835 million Lek

b) Expenditures from other donors ..................1 billion and 267 million Lek

The total estimated expenditures is about 15 million USD.

NOTE: The projected amounts are not exact calculations. Estimated costs for each specific project may change at the time when funding will be available for specific projects.

Implementation  and Monitoring

§ Phases of implementation of the Strategy

§ Monitoring Institutions



I. Implementation


Implementation of the national strategy of the combat against trafficking in human beings will be carried out in three main phases, spread during 2001 – 2002 and 2003.

In the first phase, spread during 2001 up to June 2002, the following will be accomplished:

A study for trafficking in human beings; The compilation of the decision of the Council of Ministers for the creation of the Counter Trafficking Committee. The compilation of programs to sensitize the public; The setting up and having functioning the special structure of the Police in counter trafficking activities; Initiating the training and qualification of the Police personnel and the personnel of Prosecutor’s Office.

In the second phase, spread during July 2002- June 2003:

A compilation of legislation for the functioning of this strategy as well as the setting up of centers for receiving foreigners, the victims of the trafficking, binding of Repatriation Agreements with our neighboring countries and with countries of the origin.

In the third phase, July 2003 – September 2004:

Programs for the economic strengthening of women, for the lowering of the level of poverty, and reintegration of the victims of trafficking in the society will be developed.

During the first phase of the implementation of this strategy, October 2001 – June 2002 the following aims will be achieved: 

1. Carrying through the study of the trafficking in human beings and the ways it is realized.

Ministry of Public Order and General Prosecutor’s Office

Up to June 2002.  

2.  Compilation of the decision of the Council of Ministers “ for the creation of Counter Trafficking Committee of the Combat against Trafficking in human beings,” near by The Prime Minister.

 MOPO with the assistance of OSCE, EC and American specialists in MOPO

Up to30 December 2001.

3. Compilation of the Program “ for the protection of the women and children from trafficking.”

Committee for Equal Chances, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs,

Up to June 2002.

4. Compilation of a special program “ for the increasing of public sensitization in the combat against trafficking in human beings, for the danger of trafficking and its consequences.”

State Minister near the Prime Minister, assisted by international organizations and NGO-s interested in the combat against Trafficking

Up to March 2002.

5. Preparation of  TV Programs for trafficking in human beings, from the point of view of preventing trafficking and victim’s situation.

State Minister near Prime Minister, assisted by specialists of Counter trafficking, from international organizations and NGO-s

Up to June 2002.  

6. Realizing the possibilities for information on legal Migration.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs assisted by IOM,

Up to March 2002.

7. Developing programs on professional education to increase the police employees commitment in the combat against trafficking in human beings.

Ministry of Public Order and IOM

Up to June 2002. 

8. Setting up of special police units to prevent and investigate the traffickers, aiming at spreading to the Regional Police Directorates.

MOPO up to end of December 2001. 

9. Setting up of the International Anti-Trafficking Center in Vlora and binging it into operaton.

MOPO and the countries participants in this initiative

Up to December 2001. 

In the second phase of the implementation of the strategy, July 2001- June 2003, the following aims will be achieved:

1. Gathering reports, statistics and research information on this field, from conferences, corresponding governmental agencies, international organisms and NGO-s that deal with the combat against trafficking in human beings.

MOPO, National Informative Service, up to June 2002.   

2. Compilation of the law: “ Protection of the witnesses”

Ministry of Justice, General Prosecutor’s Office, assisted by international organisms

Up to September 2002.

3. Compilation of the law: “ For some additions and changes in the Criminal Procedural Code” aiming at the beginning of the proceeding based upon the complaint of the members of the family or of the legal guardian of the victim of the trafficking.

Ministry of Justice, General Prosecutor’s Office assisted by international organisms

Up to September 2002 

4. Developing conferences, seminars with a broad participation aiming at delivering information and realization of collaboration in this direction.

MOPO, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, assisted by international organisms and NGO-s

Up to September 2002. 

5. Preparation of school programs for the children and young people on “ The danger of trafficking and to promote as well a Zero tolerance against the violence on women and girls.”

Ministry of Education and Science, Committee for Equal Chances, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, assisted by international organisms

Up to September2002.

6. Preparation of a special program on training the teachers for these problems.

Ministry of Education and Sciences

Up to September 2002.

7. Developing programs with information available for the age of the children and young people, in schools and in activities based on the community ,on the sexual relations to prevent HIV/ AIDS,

Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Health, assisted by international organizations and NGO-s, up to September 2002.

8. Preparation of the program: “ Position of women in the society and the due recommendations.”  

Committee for Equal Chances, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs assisted by NGO-s

Up to December 2002.

9. Preparation of the program:” Involvement of the young girls in economy and their stabilizing in working”

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, assisted by international organisms

Up to December 2002

10. Setting up the centers of receiving as well as health and psychological  rehabilitation of the victims of the trafficking ; Specifically a center for receiving and accommodation of persons having migrating aims, a center targeting at receiving accommodating as well  as the health and psychological treatment of the trafficked women, victims of the crime and a center for the reintegration of children as well.

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, MOPO,  international organisms as well.

Up to December 2002.

11. To continue the process of binding the agreements of repatriating with the neighboring countries and with the countries of their origin, to take measures for repatriating of the victims as well.

Ministry of foreign Affairs, MOPO, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, assisted by international organisms

Up to March 2002.

12. Developing training for officials involved in the combat against trafficking in human beings, (in the Prosecutor’s Office, Police, Court) to investigate and to bring the traffickers to justice. Respect the victims of the trafficking and the best interests of the children as well.

MOPO, Ministry of Justice, General Prosecutor’s Office, assisted by international organisms

Up to March 2003.

13. Developing of the training programs aiming at improvement of the collaboration between the Police and NGO-s and international organisms as well.

Ministry of Public Order (MOPO), OSCE,EC,IOM and NGO-s

Up to September 2002.

14. Training of the Police employees of the Border Checking Points to identify the traffickers and the victims of trafficking.

MOPO and international organisms

Up to March 2003.

15. Logistic supply of the Police units of Counter Trafficking with special means in order to carry out specific duties in their fight to detect and arrest the traffickers.

MOPO, Ministry of Finance and foreign donators

Up to September 2002.

In the third phase of implementation ,July 2003 – September 20004, the following aims will be achieved

1. Developing economic programs aiming at economic strengthening of women.

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, assisted by international organisms

Up to September 2003.

2. Developing programs to prevent domestic violence and its social-economic consequences for women and children.

Committee for Equal Chances, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, assisted by NGO-s

Up to June 2004. 

II. Monitoring

The responsibility for the control upon the implementation of the “ National Strategy Of Combat Against Trafficking in Human Beings” belongs to the Minister of the State near the Prime Minister, who once in three months will report in the Committee Of Counter Trafficking in human beings, near the Prime Minister.

Every Ministry or Institution that have obligations according to this strategy, must inform for the course of the work for the execution of the Strategy, to the Minister of the State and to the Committee Of Counter Trafficking in human beings, every three months, starting since the date of approval of this Strategy in the Council Of Ministers.

The Prime Minister will be informed for the executing of the duties of the Strategy Combating Trafficking in human beings from the Committee set up for this purpose periodically at every end of the meetings.

The Council Of the Ministers and the Prime Minister, according to their constitutional competencies, decide upon the requests of the corresponding Ministries and upon the recommendations of the Committee of the Combat Against Trafficking in Human Beings.

The Parliamentarian Commission of Order and National Informative Service and the Commission of Laws, evaluate the work according to the projects presented by the Government and other Institutions, which execute this Strategy.

The Prime Minister, once in a year, reports in the Assembly   Of Albania, for the proceeding of the work and the problems of the Fight against the Trafficking in Human Beings.    

Tables and Maps

- Statistic Tables

- Maps of the routes


Identified Cases


Criminally Prosecuted Authors


Persons saved from trafficking

18 209




2000 – 2001

Returned from Trafficking

18 209 Victims

Returned by the Foreign Police Forces


Seized navigational conveyances


Persons accompanied to Commissariats
































The working group

The working group accomplished the drafting of this strategy, based on the Order of the Prime Minister, No. 77, dated 15.6.2001:

Chairman of the group: Bujar Himçi, Deputy minister of Public Order


Bilbil Mema MPO, General Director of the Police

Shyqyri Dade MPO, Director of the Economic Directorate

Shkëlqim Saço MPO, Advisor of the Minister

Avni Jasharllari MPO, Chief of sector

Novruz Binaj Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Chief of consulate sector

Sokol Pasho Ministry of Justice, Director of a directorate

Natasha Pepivani Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Chief of sector

Niko Kreçi Ministry of Education and Science, Chief of sector

Rexhep Elezi National Intelligence Service, Inspector

Bilbil Meta General Prosecutor’s Office, Prosecutor

International organisations and non-governmental organisations assisting the drafting of the strategy.

International organisations


1. Frank Ledwidge, Legal Advisor

2. Silda Anagnosti, specialist

II. Council of Europe

1. Marta Onorato

III. US Embassy

1. Vernelle Trim

[1] The Protocol “On the prevention, impediment and punishment of the traffic of persons, especially that of women and children”, signed in Palermo in December 2000.

[2] Law no. 8733, dated 24.01.2001 “On some additions and changes in law no. 7895, dated 27.01.1995 The Criminal Code of the >Republic of Albania” articles 28, 30 and 35.