The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia


Source : Estonian Legal Translation Centre (

Chapter II

Fundamental Rights, Freedoms and Duties

§ 8.

Every child of whose parents one is a citizen of Estonia is entitled to Estonian citizenship by birth. Everyone who has forfeited his or her Estonian citizenship as a minor is entitled to its restoration. No one may be deprived of an Estonian citizenship acquired by birth. No one may be deprived of Estonian citizenship because of his or her beliefs. The conditions and procedure for the acquisition, forfeiture and restoration of Estonian citizenship are provided in the Citizenship Act.

§ 9.

The rights, freedoms and duties of all persons and of everyone, as set out in the Constitution, apply equally to citizens of Estonia and to citizens of foreign states and stateless persons in Estonia. The rights, freedoms and duties set out in the Constitution extend to legal persons in so far as this is in accordance with the purpose of legal personality and with the nature of such rights, freedoms and duties.


§ 12.

Everyone is equal before the law. No one may be discriminated against on the basis of nationality, race, colour, sex, language, origin, religion, political or other views, property or social status, or on other grounds. Incitement to ethnic, racial, religious or political hatred, violence or discrimination is prohibited and punishable by law. Incitement to hatred and violence between social classes or to discrimination against a social class is also prohibited and punishable by law