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THE CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

(with the Amendments and Additions as of 21/07/2014)

(excerpts)

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Article 47
1. No one may be deprived of the right to the consideration of his (her)or her case in that
court and by that judge in whose cognizance the given case is according to law.
2. A person accused of committing a crime shall have the right to the examination of his
(her)case by a jury court in cases envisaged by federal law.


Article 48
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to qualified legal assistance. In cases envisaged
by law the legal assistance shall be free.
2. Any person detained, taken into custody or accused of committing a crime shall have the
right to receive the assistance of a lawyer (counsel for the defence) from the moment of
detention, confinement in custody or facing charges accordingly.


Article 49
1. Everyone accused of committing a crime shall be considered innocent until his (her)guilt
is proved according to the rules fixed by federal law and confirmed by the sentence of a court
which has come into legal force.
2. The accused shall not be obliged to prove his (her)innocence.
3. Unremovable doubts about the guilt of a person shall be interpreted in favour of the
accused.


Article 50
1. No one may be convicted twice for one and the same crime.
2. In administering justice it shall not be allowed to use evidence received by violating
federal law.
3. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to appeal against the judgement in a
superior court according to the rules envisaged by federal law, as well as to ask for pardon or
mitigation of punishment.


Article 51
1. No one shall be obliged to give evidence incriminating themselves, a husband or wife or
close relatives the range of whom is determined by federal law.
2. Federal law may envisage other cases of absolution from the obligation to testify.


Article 52
The rights of victims of crimes and of abuse of office shall be protected by law. The State
shall provide access to justice for them and compensation for the damage sustained.


Article 53
Everyone shall have the right to state compensation for damage caused by unlawful actions
(inaction) of bodies of state authority and their officials.


Article 54
1. A law introducing or aggravating responsibility shall not have retrospective effect.
2. No one may bear responsibility for an action which was not regarded as a crime when it
was committed. If after violating the law the relevant responsibility is eliminated or mitigated, the
new law shall be applied.

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