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LAW OF GEORGIA
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE OF GEORGIA

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Chapter II - Principles of Criminal Proceedings

Article 4 - Inviolability of personal dignity
1. A judge, prosecutor, investigator and other participants of criminal proceedings shall, at every stage of the proceedings, be obliged to ensure the
inviolability of personal dignity and private life of the participants in the proceedings.
2. It shall be inadmissible to exert influence upon the free will of a person by using torture, violence, cruel treatment, deception, medical intervention,
hypnosis, or any other measures that affect the human memory or thinking. It shall also be inadmissible to use threats or to promise any privileges not
provided for by law.
3. In the context of criminal proceedings, coercion may be used only in cases and in the manner prescribed by law.


Article 5 - Presumption of innocence and liberty
1. A person shall be considered innocent unless his/her culpability has been established by final judgement of conviction.
2. No one shall be obliged to assert his/her innocence. The burden to prove the charges shall lie with the prosecutor. A prosecutor may dismiss the
charges.
3. A suspicion arising during the assessment of evidence that cannot be confirmed under the procedure established by law, shall be resolved in favour of
the accused (convicted person).
4. A person shall be free, except when the necessity of his/her detention is proved.


Article 6 - Inadmissibility of unlawful restriction of a person's constitutional rights and liberties
1. Constitutional rights and liberties of a participant of a criminal proceeding may only be restricted on the basis of special provisions of the Constitution
of Georgia and  of this Code.
2. Only a court shall have the right to recognise a person as an offender and to impose a sentence on him/her.
3. Preference shall always be given to the most lenient form of restriction of rights and liberties.

Article 7 - Inviolability of private life in criminal proceedings
1. During an investigation, a party may not arbitrarily and unlawfully interfere with the personal life of other persons. The inviolability of private or
other property or of private communication performed by any means shall be guaranteed by law.
2. A person carrying out a procedural action shall not disclose information on a [person's] personal life, nor private information that the person considers
necessary to keep confidential.
3. A person who suffered damage as a result of unlawful disclosure of information regarding his/her private life/personal data, shall have the right to be
fully indemnified for the damage under the legislation of Georgia.

Article 8 - Fair trial and expediency of justice
1. The accused (the convict, or the acquitted person) shall have the right to a fair trial.
2. The accused shall have the right to the expediency of justice within the time limits prescribed by this Code. A person may relinquish this right if so
required for the appropriate preparation of the defence.
3. A court shall prioritise the review of the criminal case in which the accused has been remanded to custody.


Article 9 - Equality of arms and adversarial principle
1. Upon the commencement of a criminal prosecution, criminal proceedings shall be carried out based on the equality or arms and adversarial principle.
2. Any of the parties [to the proceedings] may, under this Code, file a motion, obtain, request through a court, submit and examine all the relevant
evidence.


Article 10 - Publicity and orality of a hearing
1. A hearing, as a rule, shall be public and oral. A hearing may be closed only where so provided for by this Code.
2. All decisions delivered by a court shall be publicly announced.
3. (Deleted - 18.1.2013, No 205).
4. Photo-, film-, video, shorthand or audio recording in a court building or a court room shall be performed in compliance with the procedure provided
for by the Organic Law of Georgia on Common Courts.
Law of Georgia No 205 of 18 January 2013 –  web-site, 28.  2.2013.
Law of Georgia No 583 of 1 May 2013 – web-site, 20.5.2013.


Article 11 - Conduct of criminal proceedings in the state language
Criminal proceedings shall be carried out in the Georgian language, and in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, also in the Abkhazian language.  A
trial participant who has no or appropriate command of the language of the criminal proceedings shall be assigned an interpreter in the manner
provided for by this Code.


Article 12 - Legality and independence of the judiciary
1. A person shall only be judged by the court within the jurisdiction of which, under the law, falls the review of the person's case. 
2. Only a prosecutor may initiate a criminal prosecution under this Code.
3. The procedure for the investigation of a criminal case and judicial hearing provided for by the criminal procedure legislation of Georgia shall be
uniform across the entire territory of Georgia and shall be mandatory for all participants of criminal proceedings.
4. In cases provided for by this Code, the lawful interests of a person shall take precedence over the public interest of solving the case and punishing the
offender. The protection of a person's lawful interests in criminal proceedings serves the public interest.

Article 13 - Evidence
1. Evidence shall not have any pre-determined force.
2. The confession the accused, unless corroborated by any other evidence that proves the person's guilt, shall not be sufficient to pass a judgement of
conviction against the accused. A judgement of conviction shall be based only on a body of consistent, clear and convincing evidence that, beyond
reasonable doubt, proves the culpability of a person. [(the normative content of the second sentence of paragraph 2 that stipulates the possibility to pass
a judgement of conviction based on the evidence determined under Article 76 of the same Code (wording dated 14 June 2013) - an indirect testimony,
shall be considered invalid) - Decision of the Constitutional Court of Georgia No 1/1/548 of 22 January 2015 - web-site, 4.2.2015]


Law of Georgia No 3616 of 24 September 2010 – LHG I, No 50, 24.9.2010, Article 328
Decision of the Constitutional Court of Georgia No 1/1/548 of 22 January 2015 - web-site, 4.2.2015.


Article 14 - Direct and oral examination of evidence
1. Evidence shall not be presented to a court (jury), unless the parties had the equal opportunity to examine it directly and orally, except as provided for
by this Code.
2. A party may request to personally interrogate a witness and present him/her own evidence at the hearing.


Article 15 - Right to refuse testimony
No one shall be obliged to testify against oneself or other persons specified in this Code.


Article 16 - Discretionary nature of criminal prosecution
When making a decision to initiate or terminate a criminal prosecution, a prosecutor shall exercise discretionary powers and take into consideration the
public interests.


Article 17 - Bringing charges based on a probable cause
1. Charges shall be brought against a person if there exists a probable cause indicating that he/she has committed an offence.
2. Charges against a person may only be brought by a prosecutor.


Article 18 - Impermissibility of repeated detention, accusation and conviction [double jeopardy]
1. A person may not be detained repeatedly based on the same evidences and/or the same information.
2. A person may not be charged with and/or convicted of an offence for which he/she once already been acquitted or convicted.
Law of Georgia No 741 of 14 June 2013 – web-site, 27.6.2013  

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